Biography of Genghis Khan
In less than 100 years, Genghis Khan and his descendents established the largest empire in the world, exceeded only by the British Empire in the 19th century. Through cunning diplomacy, spiritual mission, and brute force, Genghis Khan unified the incompatible Mongols and then set out east and west to swiftly conquer vast parts of Asia. The Mongol army swept down on cities and villages, taking anything as booty or victims. By 1280, Mongol rule stretched from China's Yellow Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, a total of 12 million square miles. Among the descendants of Genghis Khan, the most well-known is his grandson, Kublai Khan, admired for his enlightened rule and famous for his opulent lifestyle. During its brief existence, the Mongol Empire was responsible for an estimated 30 to 40 million deaths, the destruction of several major dynasties, and retarding or altering the development of many other civilizations. Yet, at the same time, Genghis Khan and his descendants increased Europe's knowledge of the Orient, established major trade routes between East and West, and unified large regions in western Russia and China that remain united today.
Genghis Khan was born in north central Mongolia and named "Temujin" after a Tatar chieftain that his father, Yesukhei, had captured. Young Temujin was a member of the Borjigin tribe and descendant of Khabul Khan, who briefly united Mongols against the Jin (Chin) Dynasty of northern China in the early 1100s. According to the "Secret History of the Mongols" (a contemporary account of Mongol history), Temujin was born with a blood clot in his hand, a sign in Mongol folklore that he was destined to become a leader. His mother, Hoelun, taught him the grim reality of living in turbulent Mongol tribal society and the need for alliances.
When Temujin was 9, his father took him to live with the family of his future bride, Borte. On the return trip home, Yesukhei encountered members of the rival Tatar tribe, who invited him to a conciliatory meal, where he was poisoned for past transgressions against the Tatars. Upon hearing of his father's death, Temujin returned home to claim his position as clan chief. However, the clan refused to recognize the young boy's leadership and ostracized his family of younger brothers and half-brothers to near-refugee status. The pressure on the family was great, and in a dispute over the spoils of a hunting expedition, Temujin quarreled with and killed his half-brother Bekhter, confirming his position as head of the family.
At 16, Temujin married Borte, cementing the alliance between the Konkirat tribe and his own. Soon after, Borte was kidnapped by the rival Merkit tribe and given to a chieftain as a wife. Temujin was able to rescue her and soon after she gave birth to her first son, Jochi. Though Borte's captivity with the Konkirat tribe cast doubt on Jochi's birth, Temujhin accepted him as his own. With Borte, Temujin had four sons and many other children with other wives, as was Mongolian custom. However, only his male children with Borte qualified for succession in the family.
- Genghis Khan's empire was the largest ever established, extending from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan, with over 700 tribes and cities under his rule.
- In just 25 years, the Mongols conquered more lands and people than the Romans had in over 400 years.
- In addition to being a brilliant military strategist, Genghis Khan has been credited with such social advances as the introduction of paper money, the postal system, and religious tolerance.
- Genghis Khan was a notorious destructor of aristocracies and the elite, but respected and admired teachers, doctors, craftsmen and engineers, whom he never taxed.
- Careful not to give his children too much power, Genghis Khan sought to break away from the traditional kin-based ties of the steppe.
- After defeating a country, Genghis Khan ensured the availability of food and security for its people and established viable governments, often with local officials left in charge. He also allowed prevailing religious observances to continue without persecution.
- Genghis Khan is famed for organizing his military on a system of ten - ten men to a squad, ten squads to a company, ten companies to a regiment up to "tumens" of ten thousand men.
- According to a study published by The American Journal of Human Genetics, Genghis Khan may be the most prolific man in history. The ruler's progeny multiplied explosively, and his apparent Y-chromosome lineage features prominently in the population genetics of modern Asia.
Wednesday, August 24, 2011
Genghis Khan - Biography *AGENT DADDY*