Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Tetra Communications systems

Confidential Report On TETRA - Secret Report On Cell Phone Dangers And Tetra - Strictly For The Police Federation Of England and Wales

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by B. Trower

September 2001
from PlannigSanity Website

INTRODUCTION

With respect to my fellow scientists I shall be writing this report in non-scientific speak for all of those readers who have not had the benefit of a scientific education.

WHAT IS ALL THIS REALLY ABOUT?

Imagine the field around a magnet and imagine ordinary everyday static electricity. If you put the force field from the magnet with the force field from the static electricity you make a wave. This wave is called an electromagnetic wave. There are lots of different types of electromagnetic waves but they are all made of the same two things - magnetic and static. The only difference between the waves is their wavelength or the length of the wave and the number of waves that can be produced a second, i.e. the frequency. All of these waves are put into a table called the electromagnetic spectrum.

At one end of this electromagnetic spectrum you have the very short waves, namely gamma rays and x-rays and at the other end of the spectrum you have the very long waves, namely radio, TV and waves from overhead power cables. All of these waves have the same properties; that is to say they all behave the same.

They can all be reflected, refracted, and they all travel at the same speed, which is the speed of light. For interest, if you were one wave of light you would be able to travel around the world nearly seven times every second; that is the speed of light.

The electromagnetic spectrum is ordered so that at the short wave end you have the

  1. gamma rays

  2. x-rays

  3. ultra-violet

  4. visible light

  5. infra red

  6. microwaves

  7. radar

  8. radio

...in that order.

The ultra-violet and above are known as ionizing waves and there is no argument as to the damage they can cause when entering the body. Below ultraviolet is said to be non-ionizing and this is where arguments occur between scientists as to whether damage can occur inside the human body through exposure to these waves.

The microwaves used in the TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked RAdio) system are in the non-ionizing section of the electromagnetic spectrum and I will be discussing the arguments concerning microwaves and health in this report.


Terrestrial Trunked Radio
from Wikipedia Website


TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (TETRA) (formerly known as Trans European Trunked RAdio) is a

specialist Professional Mobile Radio and walkie talkie standard used by police departments, fire departments, ambulance services and the military.

TETRA is an ETSI standard, first version published 1995. TETRA is endorsed by the European Radio Communications Committee (ERC).


Description

TETRA terminals can act as cell phones, with a direct connection to the PSTN. It is common also for them to operate in a group calling mode in which a single button push will connect the user to a dispatcher and all the other users in a group. Also possible is for the terminal to act as a one to one walkie talkie but without the normal range limitation since the call still uses the network. Emergency buttons, provided on the terminals, enable the users to transmit emergency signals, to the dispatcher, overriding any other activity taking place at the same time.

TETRA uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) with four user channels on one radio carrier and 25 kHz spacing between carriers. Both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transfer can be used. Digital data transmission is also included in the standard though at a low data rate.

TETRA Mobile Stations (MS) can communicate Direct Mode or using Trunked infrastructure (Switching and Management Infrastructure or SwMI) made of TETRA Base Stations (TBS). As well as allowing direct communications in situations where network coverage has been lost, Direct Mode or DMO also includes the possibility of using one (or a chain) of TETRA terminals as relays for a signal. This functionality is called DMO gateway (from DMO to TMO) or DMO Repeater (DMO to DMO). In rescue situations this feature could allow direct communications underground or in areas of bad coverage.

In addition to voice and dispatch services, the TETRA system supports several types of data communication. Status messages and short data services (SDS) are provided over the system's main control channel, while Packet Data or Circuit switched data communication uses specifically assigned traffic channels.

All traffic is normally encrypted. TETRA provides both over the air encryption and end-to-end encryption.

Advantages

The main advantages of TETRA over other technologies (such as GSM) are:

  • the much lower frequency used, which permits very high levels of geographic coverage with a smaller number of transmitters, cutting infrastructure cost.

  • fast call set-up - a one to many group call is generally set-up within 0.5 seconds (typical less than 250 msec for a single node call) compared with the many seconds that are required for a GSM network.

  • the fact that its infrastructure can be separated from that of the public cellphone network, and made substantially more diverse and resilient by the fact that base stations can be some distance from the area served.

  • unlike most cellular technologies, TETRA networks typically provide a number of fall-back modes such as the ability for a base station to process local calls in the absence of the rest of the network, and for 'direct mode' where mobiles can continue to share channels directly if the infrastructure fails or is out-of-reach.

  • gateway mode - where a single mobile with connection to the network can act as a relay for other nearby mobiles that are out of contact with the infrastructure.

  • TETRA also provides a point-to-point function that traditional analogue emergency services radio systems didn't provide. This enables users to have a one-to-one trunked 'radio' link between sets without the need for the direct involvement of a control room operator/dispatcher.

  • unlike the cellular technologies, which connect one subscriber to one other subscriber (one-to-one) then TETRA is built to do one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. These operational modes are directly relevant to the public safety and professional users.

Disadvantages

Its main disadvantages are:

  • it can only support a much lower teledensity in a given area, compared to GSM and similar technologies (which is not a problem in the applications for which it is used, but mostly limits it to these applications).

  • handsets are more expensive (about 750 EUR in 2003, about 600 EUR in 2006), due to the reduced economies of scale, different business model when compared to mass-market cellphones, need for security evaluation, and robustness.

  • data transfer is slow at 7.2 kbit/s per timeslot (3.5 kbit/s net packet data throughput), although up to 4 timeslots can be combined into a single data channel to achieve higher rates, due to need to fit into 25kHz bandwidth channel plans.

  • due to the pulsed nature of TDMA employed by the protocol, handsets can interfere with sensitive electronic devices such as heart pacemakers and defibrillators, as can other RF transmitting equipment when used in close proximity (e.g. < 1 meter distance.)

Radio Frequencies

In Europe, TETRA uses frequencies:Emergency Systems

In Britain the public sector TETRA system operates under the name 'Airwave'. In Belgium, the 'A.S.T.R.I.D' system uses TETRA. In the Netherlands, the TETRA system is called 'C2000'. In Sweden the RAKEL system uses TETRA. In Finland the VIRVE (short for VIRanomaisVErkko, loosely translated: "official network") network uses TETRA. VIRVE and C2000 are currently the only TETRA networks that covers an entire country.

Radio aspects

TETRA uses a digital modulation scheme known as π/4 DQPSK which is a form of phase shift keying. TETRA uses TDMA (see above). The symbol rate is 18,000 symbols per second, and each symbol maps to 2 bits. A single slot consists of 255 symbols, a single frame consist of 4 slots, and a multi-frame (whose duration is approximately 1 second) consists of 18 frames. As a form of phase shift keying the downlink power is constant. The downlink (i.e. the output of the base-station) is a continuous transmission consisting of either specific communications with mobiles, synchronization or other general broadcasts. Although the system uses 18 frames per second only 17 of these are used for traffic channel, with the 18th frame reserved for signaling or synchronization. TETRA does not employ amplitude modulation. However, TETRA has 17.65 frames per second (18000 symbols/sec / 255 symbols/slot / 4 slots/frame), which is the cause of the PERCEIVED "amplitude modulation" at 17Hz.


SAFETY LEVELS In this country, when somebody asks about whether a certain level of electromagnetic radiation is safe they are usually quoted a safety limit. This safety limit is laid down by the NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board). Usually when you ask about a dose of radiation you find that the amount that you were asking about is thousands of times below the safety limit and thereby reportedly safe.

A safety limit is really a personal opinion. This personal opinion may be based on many factors by an individual or individuals from whatever data they have in their possession. To give you an example of some safety limits around the world, for one particular type of microwave transmitter, these read as follows:

  • Toronto Health Board: 6 units

  • Italy: 10 units

  • Russia: 10 units

  • Poland: 100 units

  • US Research Base: 100 units

  • International Commission: 450 units

  • The NRPB for Britain: 3,300 units

There are other values for other transmitters but there is no need to list those in this document.

To look at this another way, supposing you took your car to a garage and one mechanic estimated a price of £6 and another mechanic estimated a price of £3,300 for the same job, you would feel justified about questioning the decisions. The reason that our safety limit is much higher than the rest of the world is that in other countries they base their safety limits on possible effects from the electric field, the magnetic field and the heat produced in the body.

Our NRPB will only base the safety limit for this country on the heat produced in the body. I will comment on heat further in this report (Appendix 1, Reference 1).


WHAT IS BELIEVED TO HAPPEN AS THESE WAVES ENTER OUR BODIES?

I will try to summarize the thousand or so research papers written over the last 20 or so years and explain or summarize what happens when the electric and magnetic part of the wave goes into our bodies.

We being water based animals act like aerials to these waves. As the waves go into our bodies an electric current is generated inside our bodies which is how aerials work; waves come in and electricity is generated. The electricity generated in our bodies like all electric currents goes to ground through our bodies and like all electric currents it takes the path of least resistance.

Unfortunately the path of least resistance through our bodies, although only representing 10% of our pathways, carries 90% of our traffic rather like the M1 motorway. The traffic in our bodies, namely hormones, antibodies, neurotransmitters know where they are going because they also carry an electric charge.

The hormones, antibodies and neurotransmitters know where to "get off" because there is a corresponding opposite charge at the site of delivery rather like the positive and negative ends of a battery. The problem is if you have an electric current passing through the body it can change this charge, either on the hormones, antibodies or neurotransmitters or the site of delivery.

An analogy to that would be - if you were in Paris on the Underground system and you could not speak a word of French, but you had a map with the station name of where to get off and somebody tippexed out one or two of the letters, you may get off or you may not, and this can happen in the body.

The hormones, antibodies or neurotransmitters may get off where they are meant to get off or they may carry on and miss their target. As a one-off this probably would not be very important but continuous interference over many years it is argued can lead to many illnesses.

A similar effect is that the destination for some of these hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies is a surface of a cell where chemicals will pass through a membrane into a cell. If you think of a cell in our body, be it a brain cell, bone cell etc, as having a positive and negative charge on the outside and the inside similar to a battery the difference in these charges will draw the chemical into the cell or draw poisonous substances out of the cell.

If the charge is changed on the outside of the cell, then necessary chemicals may not go in or poisonous chemicals may not go out. An analogy to that would be - think of your house as a cell in your body. Essential things like food, water and fuel come into the house and poisonous things like waste and gases leave the house. In fact a house is very similar in many ways to a cell in our body.

Now, if we had a blockage and waste could not leave the house or sometimes food or electricity did not come into the house, over a short period of time we would survive this, but continual disruption over many years will probably have a knock-on effect on the health of the inhabitants particularly if they are young or frail. This is my explanation of how electromagnetic waves affect our cells.

A final description is possibly the accumulative effect of all the particles going through the body each second. Each particle and for TETRA we are talking about 400,000,000 particles a second carries a small amount of momentum with it. As an analogy, imagine you are driving down the M1 in the largest lorry you could possibly imagine and you are hit by the smallest dust particle you could ever imagine.

Obviously the dust particle will not effect the speed or momentum of your lorry but if you have 400,000,000 dust particles a second for many years they could if something else was going wrong with your lorry exacerbate the effect and slow your lorry, and that is the crucial point. All of these effects I have described are believed to have one final conclusion. They all in their own way suppress the immune system.

When you suppress the immune system as I will show in research papers, you tend to have:

  • more colds

  • more coughs

  • longer colds

  • longer coughs

  • longer illnesses

  • depression

  • anxiety leading to suicide

  • or taken to its ultimate - leukemia

I will summarize just four of what I consider to be extremely well written research papers by arguably the worlds leading scientists in this field. There are other leading scientists of course but I cannot list them all in this report. I am using these as specimen papers.

When I refer to research papers I am not referring to something that somebody has sat down one Sunday afternoon and just written. These research papers have sometimes hundreds of references in the back and each reference on its own is usually 5-10 years work by a group of scientists where their work would have been peer reviewed, and in a lot of cases published. So for arguments sake, if a paper has say 100 references in the back that could well constitute 500-1,000 years accumulative work.

The first paper (Appendix 2, Reference 2) by Dr Neil Cherry was presented in May 2000 to the New Zealand Parliament, to Italy, Austria, Ireland and the European Parliament in Brussels. This paper has 122 references. I have photocopied the references to show that as well as being peer reviewed, many are published. I will do this with the other three papers (Appendix 3).

From this research paper some illnesses caused by long-term low level electromagnetic radiation are:

  • Heart problems

  • Blood problems

  • Interference with bone marrow

  • Tumors

  • Calcium interference

  • 46% reduction in night-time melatonin

It is believed that during the daytime light going through our eyes passes a message to the pineal glands in the brain which slows down the production of melatonin. At night when no light goes through our eyes the production of melatonin is speeded up. Melatonin is believed to scavenge cancer cells and impurities in our bodies and boost the immune system.

If an officer is sleeping in quarters within range of the TETRA transmitter, the microwave radiation is believed to act on the pineal gland and suppress the night-time melatonin to daytime levels; hence the good work of the melatonin at night will be restricted leading to suppression of the immune system.

  • Increased arthritis

  • Skin problems

  • Ear problems

  • Risk to leukemia

  • Childhood cancer

  • Sleep problems

  • Depression

  • Memory loss

  • Difficulty in concentrating

  • Mental conditions

A very recent discovery shows that microwave radiation changes the permeability of the blood brain barrier. Our brain has its own immune system as does our body. The blood brain barrier keeps everything that is designed to be kept within the brain inside it and protects the brain from any unwanted diseases or chemicals which could harm it.

Similarly it allows out of the brain anything dangerous to the brain. The blood brain barrier is rather like a sieve where only particles of a certain size may go through. Professor Salford at Lund University in Sweden has shown that such pulsing as from mobile phones can alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (Appendix 4, Reference 3).

I will argue as TETRA pulses, which is arguably more powerful than the average mobile phone, this situation could be worse with TETRA.

Also, it is shown that the electromagnetic radiation going into the body can change the size of the particles moving around the body (Reference 4). This is rather like an ice skater spinning on her skates. With her arms out she spins slowly, but if she pulls her arms in she spins faster. Microwaves can affect the particles in our body by changing their spin; hence their size. They can be made smaller or larger.

With the changing of the permeability of the blood brain barrier and the changing in size of particles unwanted particles may enter the brain or necessary particles may leave the brain. The connection here with mental conditions is that Dr Hyland of Warwick University has written that the uptake of drugs; in particular neurological drugs is inhibited because of changes in the blood brain barrier.

  • Neurological illnesses

  • Headaches

  • Dizziness

  • Fatigue

  • Miscarriage

  • Infertility

I have listed all of the references on this particular research paper because all of these researches correspond to the above list.

The second paper I would like to comment on (Appendix 5, Reference 5) has 80 references and as well as a lot of the illnesses written in Dr Cherry's paper goes on to mention that with regard to mobile phone handsets you should avoid keeping the handset when switched on adjacent to the body, in particular in the vicinity of the waist or heart.

There have been deaths due to colon cancer from the Royal Ulster Constabulary who wore radio or microwave transmitters in the small of their backs for extended periods of time.

Dr Hyland recommends keeping the duration of calls to an absolute minimum and on his back page relating to pulse mobile phone radiation on alive humans and animals, the following may occur:

  • Epileptic activity

  • Effects on human EEG

  • Effects on blood pressure

  • Depression of immune systems

  • Increased permeability of the blood brain barrier

  • Effects on brain electro-chemistry

  • DNA damage in rodent brain

  • Cancers in mice

  • Synergistic effects with certain drugs

Dr Hyland, in my opinion, is one of the world's leading authorities in this area and his advice is not to be dismissed lightly. Similarly, another very highly respected scientist is Dr Coghill. I would add that both Dr Hyland and Dr Coghill are members of the Stewart Committee.

Dr Coghill's paper which has 218 references (Appendix 6, Reference 6) agrees largely with the work by Dr Hyland and Dr Cherry.

In this paper, Section 1.16, Dr Coghill writes,

"the ultimate question must be whether chronic exposure to say 1 V/m electric fields at the envisaged frequencies is likely to produce adverse health effects in the long term. At present the NRPB guidelines recommend an investigation level of 192 V/m while ICNIRP now offers much lower levels. However these are based on thermal effects: if non thermal evidence is accepted than 1 V/m is demonstrably able to induce biological effects, some of which may be adverse".

I will show in a later paper that TETRA delivers a lot more than the 1 V/m recommended as a maximum by Dr Coghill.

Dr Coghill also, in his summary in the back, lists symptoms caused by mobile phone use. Again, I will argue that as TETRA is pulsed and pulsed radiation is arguably more aggressive than the continuous analogue wave and TETRA uses more power than the ordinary mobile the symptoms will be enhanced rather than be reduced for TETRA.

The symptoms listed by Dr Coghill are:

  • Fatigue

  • Headache

  • Warmth behind the ear

  • Warmth on the ear

  • Burning skin

My final paper by a very highly respected New Zealand doctor, Dr Eklund (Appendix 7, Reference 7) which has 37 references shows leukemia clusters in and around ordinary radio and TV transmitters around the world. She says on page 13 that adult leukemia within 2 kilometers of a transmitter is 83% above expected and significantly declines within increasing distance from the transmitter.

Similarly skin and bladder cancers follow a similar pattern. As a scientist I could argue that if leukemia and cancer are known to exist from ordinary radio and TV transmitters which take many years to form and radio and TV waves are at the long end of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is known that exposure to gamma rays or x-rays can cause death within a matter of weeks, a hypothetical line could be drawn from the long waves to the short waves to determine the length of time or exposure doses needed to cause such illnesses.

Fitting into this pattern would be several years exposure to sunlight causing skin cancer. There are obvious anomalies with this; namely personal health, hygiene and all sorts of other factors, but as a crude estimate I would argue that the further up the electromagnetic spectrum you go, the shorter the time for the serious illnesses to occur. The microwaves used by TETRA are above radio and television waves.

Being water-based animals we are particularly sensitive to microwaves; this is why microwave ovens work. Microwave ovens resonate the water molecules in food and when molecules resonate they re-emit the energy they absorb as heat. This is why the food warms up and the plate does not, because it does not contain water.

The warmth on and behind the ear felt by users of mobile phones is one type of heat. Another type of heat unknown to the user, therefore not reported are hotspots within the body from microwaves. These hotspots are tiny areas in the body which warm up considerably when exposed to microwave radiation.

The problem with warming up areas inside the body is that a very recent research paper has shown that heat shock proteins are produced to protect the cells in the body from damage. Heat shock proteins act rather like scaffolding around a building; they go around the cell and protect the DNA from damage from the heat. Heat shock proteins have been known to work when the temperature rises by just 2 degrees.

Now the problem with heat shock proteins is as well as protecting the good cells they can also protect and save from destruction cancer cells. So, if you have a cell in your body which is turning cancerous and would normally be destroyed by the body's immune system, the heat shock proteins will protect it and it will continue to grow. This work was carried out by Dr David de Pomerai, of Nottingham University (Appendix 8, Reference 8).

A report on mobile telephones and their transmitters by the French Health General Directorate, dated January 2001, states in its conclusion of the group of experts that "a variety of biological effects occur at energy levels that do not cause any rise in local temperature". The group ask "is it possible to state that there are no health risks?" and they reply "No".

They go on to say,

"minimize the use of mobile telephones when reception is poor, use an earpiece kit and avoid carrying mobile phones close to potentially sensitive tissue, i.e. a pregnant woman's abdomen or adolescent gonads".

They recommend hospitals, day-care centers and schools should not be directly in the path of the transmission beam. Also and very important, they say "the cumulative exposure over their lifetime will be higher ".

The word cumulative is also mentioned by Professor Sosskind and Dr Prausnitz in their paper (Reference 9) where they say,

"an accumulated cellular level damage mechanism is not necessarily related to the intensity but can relate to total dose. Hence the averaging of weekly exposure is a meaningful adverse effect related level".

This accumulative factor puts a very different slant on doses of microwave radiation. In particular an accumulative level of radiation can build up very quickly when you receive 400,000,000 waves every single second. This is why scientists are concerned and warnings have been issued for people with pacemakers, hearing aids, insulin pumps in relation to interference of their apparatus from electromagnetic waves. Warnings are also given to persons with metal implants in their bodies.

These implants can:

a) warm up

b) absorb the microwave radiation and re-emit it at a different wavelength

I have been around the world talking to scientists and we agree, although it cannot be proved, that the recent incidents in breast cancers in ladies could be due to the metal under-wiring in bras absorbing microwave radiation and re-emitting it at a different wavelength into the mammary glands of the breast. The mammary glands are known to be particularly sensitive to radiation and they are known to be easily changed into cancer cells.

Following this line of thought, I would argue scientifically that using a TETRA handset, remembering that if you are using a TETRA handset you must also be receiving radiation from the main transmitter, i.e. you do not just have the radiation from the phone you would have the radiation from the transmitter as well, or the phone would not work, could enhance breast cancer in the lady police officers.

TETRA handsets TETRA military antenna

A similar argument follows with the argument that the eyes receive 29% extra radiation because of their moist make-up. Metal-rimmed spectacles will absorb the microwave radiation and re-emit it onto the surface of the eye. Again, unproven, but I can follow the arguments that support the two recent research papers which have found increases in eye cancers in two separate areas of the eye.

One cancer has been found in the side of the eye, one cancer has been found in the front of the eye (Appendix 9, Reference 10) (Appendix 10, Reference 11).

As a result of using pulsed mobile phones, again I will argue that as TETRA is more powerful than the average mobile there could be long-term damage to the eyes of the officers using TETRA.

A union document (Reference 12) printed 4 December 1979 for microwave transmitters up to 100,000 MHz warns its members of the following illnesses which may occur from accumulative exposure:

  • Menstrual problems

  • Miscarriage

  • Problems of the eye, heart, central nervous system, reproductive organs

They say "a false sense of safety may exist and non-thermal effects are much lower than have been recognized". The TETRA system of 380-400 MHz is within this range of this union paper. I emphasize that these effects are not new; they were being reported on as far back as 1979 and further on in this paper I will show documents that relate to exposure effects going way back to the early 1960s.

A very important sentence in this research paper states "non-ionizing radiation increases molecular vibration and rotational energies". I will refer to this further on in this document.

INSURANCE

Two of the worlds largest insurance companies, Lloyds and Swiss Re, have recommended to other insurance companies on the advice of Dr Theodore Litivitz, Professor Emeritus of Physics at the Catholic University of America, to write in exclusion clauses against paying compensation for illnesses caused by continuous long-term low level radiation.

My concern for the police force, although adequately insured, is that if in future years officers start claiming for spine or brain tumors the insurance company will terminate its contract with the police force and leave it uninsured.

SURVEYS

Two recent surveys printed in Electromagnetic Hazard & Therapy 1998, Volume 9 and 2000, Volume 11; the first of a study of 11,000 mobile phone users, the second a study of 17,000 mobile users showed the symptoms already mentioned of fatigue, headache, warmth behind the ear, warmth on the ear and burning skin in various degrees, depending on the use and type of person. From the 17,000 persons studied, these symptoms varied from 31% to 78% of the users.

If I take the lowest number of 31% as a purely hypothetical exercise which is easily dismissed as rubbish, but does give us a look at some of the numbers that could be involved; if we take 100,000 police officers then 31,000 of these officers could experience one symptom.

Playing the numbers game, if these 31,000 that experienced one symptom were to progress to a more complicated level, let's argue 10% of them may develop a migraine or a headache or require one day's sick we would have 3,100 officers taking a day's sick. If 10% of those developed something more serious that required further sickness we would have 310 officers off sick. If we take 10% of those and suggest that something more serious may occur then we could be looking at 31 officers, or I would argue 31 families, per hundred thousand involved in something which may develop into a serious medical condition.

I stress that this is hypothetical because it is very difficult to predict the future for a device that has not been tested and there are no long-term studies available.

As an aside it was noted last year that the Public & Commercial Services Union recommended to its 266,000 Civil Service members that they should not be forced to carry mobile phones.


GROUND CURRENTS

A very little understood phenomena and reported by Dr D Dahlberg (Reference 13) is ground currents from living in the proximity of transmitters on animals. I mention this with a view to the police dogs and the police horses in their kennels or stables at a constabulary base which is bound to have a transmitter. All transmitters pass an electric current to the ground beneath them.

If the ground is particularly wet this has an adverse static effect on the animals concerned and in farm animals can effect milk productions or food production. Huge static charges are built up in the animals and every time they come across a metal object the charge is discharged through the head; the nose being wet. It has been shown that if animals are taken away from this environment they recover very quickly, yet in the environment of ground currents they also become very sick very quickly. I am particularly concerned for the acutely sensitive brains and organs of the highly trained police dogs.

Three years ago when a lot of research papers individually were being dismissed I decided to look at several of the main papers and show that there was a knock-on effect in the body. I drew two flow diagrams showing the knock-on effects from approximately 25 research papers to show that even if one symptom is dismissed there can be an accumulative effect throughout the body. The two flow charts - Appendix 11 relates to the body and Appendix 12 relates to the brain, show clearly that our body systems are very closely interlinked.

Taking TETRA's lowest operating power level of 2W I wrote a hypothetical equation, and being hypothetical it is very easily dismissed, which shows that at the 2W cell activity may be accelerated by a factor of 6 or slows down by a factor of 7.5.

There are experimental papers which do in fact show that mobile phones may speed up thought processes or may slow down cellular activity. I have tried to explain this using theoretical physics. I based my paper on the already previously mentioned accumulative doses and increased molecular vibration (please see previous references).

I am fully prepared to be told that I am wrong or mistaken but I believe I can explain the process by which energy once inside the body affects the cell potential (charge on the outside of the cell), the signal transduction (movement from the outside to the inside of the cell) and the cell cycle timing (the process by which our cells operate). I have placed this calculation in Appendix 13.

Often overlooked are the electromagnetic waves from the cables and transformers of all electrical transmitters. These are usually in cabinets near the transmitters, hence near offices or sleeping quarters on constabulary bases or near kennels or stables. A research paper published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry in 1998 (Reference 14) describes the 50 cycles a second waves emitted by transformers and power cables, and how they may induce leukemia.

Although the NRPB and the National Grid have denied that these waves are dangerous both this paper and an article in the New Scientist dated 10 March 2001, page 7 which reads "Guilty as Charged. Powerful fields from pylons and cables are linked to childhood cancer", demonstrates to me scientifically that these transformers and power cables should not be overlooked.


THE CONCLUSIVE PROOF ARGUMENT

The Government's scientists will often ask for conclusive proof when they are challenged. It is a word often used when you wish to win your side of the argument. Scientifically conclusive proof is impossible to obtain - let me explain.

I was at a legal hearing in Torquay representing a community and the barrister representing the communications industry said "there is no conclusive proof that these microwaves will cause damage". I argued: if somebody stood up and shot me in this courtroom there would be three levels of proof. You would have everybody as a witness and that would be accepted in a Court of Law. A pathologist could perform a post mortem, decide that the bullet killed me and that would be a second level of proof.

If, however you wanted conclusive proof that the bullet killed me, you would have to argue that at the split second the bullet went into my body every system in my body was working perfectly because there are thousands of reasons why I could drop dead on the spot before the bullet went in and you would have to prove conclusively that all of these systems were working perfectly before the bullet went in.

Clearly, this is scientifically impossible; there is no such thing as conclusive proof, yet it is what is demanded by government scientists when challenging their decisions.

Conclusive proof has been demanded by scientists defending their decisions after they have said the following are safe:

  • Thalidomide

  • Asbestos

  • BSE

  • Smoking

  • Sheep dip

  • Gulf War Syndrome

  • GM Foods

  • Vitamin B6

With the above list it will be recognized that evidence of damage from these comes only from counting the people who are injured.

I am arguing scientifically that there is a blanket denial by some scientists and the only way to show them wrong is to present them with a certain number of bodies. When commercial interests are at stake there seems to be a denial of relevant scientific data. The problem with the microwave communications industry is that they do not have to prove it is safe; you have to prove it is not, and that is an entirely different ball game.

As a scientist, if I develop a new pill I have to run a 5 or 10 year clinical trial and convince a Board of my peers that it is safe before I have permission to release the pill onto the market. With the telecommunications industry the tables are completely turned around.

They do not have to show these instruments are safe; you have to show they are not.

UNDERSTANDING RADIATION (MICROWAVE AS IN TETRA)

There are unknown phenomena concerning low level radiation that is not generally understood by the users of communication instruments. Following the Chernobyl incident it was found that long-term continuous low level radiation of all types was as dangerous as high level doses of radiation.

With high level doses of radiation the anti-oxidants in the body (Vitamins A, C, E etc) rush to defend and repair the area of the body being damaged. However with low level radiation the anti-oxidants are not activated and because the dose is accumulative the problems can build up and are usually present before the body realizes that there is trouble. So, low level does not necessarily mean safer.

Also the smaller you are the more you tend to absorb. Wavelengths for TETRA and mobile phones are relatively short and the nearer the part of the body or the infant to the wavelength the more similarity they have to an aerial and the more they absorb. With ordinary mobiles the wavelength is around the size of a fetus and with TETRA you are looking at a 3-6 year old child. I mention this because TETRA may be used in areas where children are running around and there are very well known and documented cases of pulse radiation affecting epileptic children.

Pulse radiation from TETRA at 17.6 Hz (waves per second) is known to interfere with our natural brains rhythm. Our brains generate their own waves within our head. One of these waves, called beta waves is on a very similar frequency to the TETRA handsets.

What happens is: If you could imagine yourself jumping on a trampoline and somebody larger and heavier jumps on and dances at a slightly different speed you will bounce at their pace rather than yours. When they jump off you will still bounce at their speed. The jumping on of the person onto the trampoline is known as entrainment and this occurs when the TETRA is used in close proximity to an officer's brain.

Because TETRA affects the beta rhythm of the brain it will affect what the beta rhythm is responsible for; namely sounds judgment in emergency situations. Entrainment is always followed by a phenomena called long-term potentiation. This is an analogous to the person getting off the trampoline leaving you dancing.

Long-term potentiation has been known to last several weeks after the initial source has died down. The implications for this are that the officers' brain waves would continue to suffer entrainment even after the sets have been switched off, which would be reinforced every time the sets are switched on again.

The first paper written on this subject was by a scientist called Ptolemy who was a Greek living in Egypt in 64BC. Ptolemy found that when he spun a wheel with holes in up against the sun at different rotational speeds he could induce different effects on the brains of his subjects.

To get an idea of the complexity of the brain, if you imagine every single person in every single city in the world picking up their telephone and dialing everybody in their phonebooks, that is roughly how many connections we have in the brain. I will show later that even the Stewart Committee advised against using any communication instruments that pulsed above 16 waves per second.

TETRA is of course 17.6 waves per second.

MY SCIENTIFIC CONCERNS ABOUT THE NRPB

From a court case towards the end of 1998 Dr McKinlay was questioned in court about the use of mobile phones. Dr McKinlay is a senior scientist in the NRPB. It is known that roughly half of the NRPB's funding comes from the industries it represents, the other half of its funding comes from the Government.

In court Dr McKinlay explained that data on tissue conductivity was supplied to the NRPB by Dr Camelia Gabriel of Microwave Consultants Limited. It transpired that virtually none of the NRPB documents on non-ionizing radiation are peer reviewed and that Dr McKinlay himself had not authored any experimental studies.

Dr McKinlay admitted he had no biological expertise. Dr Camelia Gabriel is Director of Microwave Consultants Limited and she reports to the Home Office and the Health & Safety Executive. She is also Chairman of the European Standardization Body.

To summarize, the NRPB subcontract research on microwave radiation to Microwave Consultants Limited; namely Dr Camelia Gabriel. Dr Camelia Gabriel is also a senior consultant for Orange plc and has authored jointly with others the Orange Base Stations Health & Safety Manual (please see Appendices 14 and 15).

Dr Gabriel's son, also of Microwave Consultants Limited, confirms the safety of transmitters for Orange plc in school playgrounds (Appendix 16). This dual interest between Dr Camelia Gabriel as representing the NRPB and Orange plc was picked up and reported on, on 19 April 1999, by The Observer where Sarah Ryle writes,

"concerns are increasing about industry's involvement in research. Some of the NRPB's conclusions have been based on research by Dr Camelia Gabriel, a technical advisor to network operator Orange and Head of Private Consultancy, Microwave (Appendix 17)."

The problem as I see it is that when it comes to asking about safety concerning TETRA or any other communication instrument there is not one single independent person to give an answer. Every single person who has a word to say about the safety of police officers is somehow in the "food chain" going back to the communications industry.

The communications industry fund the NRPB and the Government who fund Microwave Consultants Limited so every single person has a financial interest in recommending the product.


THE ABSOLUTE PARADOX

Since the early 1960s this country, America and Russia have had what is called the non-lethal weapons programme or synthetic telepathy programme. It is very well documented now that in the early 1960s in Moscow the Russians beamed continuous low level radiation (microwaves) down onto the American Embassy causing miscarriages, leukemia's and other illnesses to the Embassy staff.

Since then the non-lethal weapons programme has become very sophisticated indeed.

It is used,

a) as a long-term low level radiation weapon to cause populations illness

b) at higher intensities to cause blindness, heart attacks or confusion

Details of all of the intensities are unknown to me but knowing that microwave radiation is accumulative, any effect can only be a matter of time. In quoting this research I refer to documents listed under Reference 15.

So sophisticated is this research, and I refer to,

They are able to define specific pulse frequencies to cause specific brain malfunctions or illnesses.

For instance:

Frequency Illness Caused

4.5 Paranoia

6.6 Depression/Suicide

11.0 Manic behavior/Anger

25.0 Blindness if aimed at the head/Heart attack

if aimed at the chest

Other consequences of frequencies used but not listed here are hysteria, trauma, lust, murder and cancer, and may all be induced.

The TETRA frequency is 17.6 Hz (waves per second) so as a scientist looking at this data which is well publicized I ask myself, if the illnesses moving up the frequency range are progressive and TETRA is between the frequency of 11 and 25 on this table, what will be the effect of TETRA's 17.6 waves per second on the brains of the police force?

This phenomena cannot be denied by the NRPB; it is listed in their own document which I will refer to later in this paper, where on page 26 they have described how at 8 waves per second animals can be made to fall asleep and at different frequencies behave differently in various parts of their brains.

As this phenomena is written about by the NRPB for 8 waves per second I would like to know what other research they have for other frequencies in and around the TETRA range.

HAARP, which is being researched by a nun, Dr Rosalie Bertell, who is concerned about what it represents along with other scientists knows that HAARP is capable of bouncing low l

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