Tuesday, November 29, 2011

AGREEMENT RELATING TO THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE ORGANI

AGREEMENT RELATING TO THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE ORGANIZATION "INTELSAT" (with annexes and Operating Agreement) (1971)

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AGREEMENT RELATING TO

THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS

SATELLITE ORGANIZATION

"INTELSAT"

(with annexes and Operating Agreement)

(1971)


ENTERED INTO FORCE: 12 Feb 1973 PREAMBLE The States Parties to this Agreement, Considering the principle set forth in Resolution 1721 (XVI) of the General Assembly of the United Nations that communication by means of satellites should be available to the nations of the world as soon as practicable on a global and nondiscriminatory basis, Considering the relevant provisions of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and in particular Article I, which states that outer space shall be used for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, Noting that pursuant to the Agreement Establishing Interim Arrangements for a Global Commercial Communications Satellite System and the related Special Agreement, a global commercial telecommunications satellite system has been established, Desiring to continue the development of this telecommunications satellite system with the aim of achieving a single global commercial telecommunications satellite system as part of an improved global telecommunications network which will provide expanded telecommunications services to all areas of the world and which will contribute to world peace and understanding, Determined, to this end, to provide, for the benefit of all mankind, through the most advanced technology available, the most efficient and economic facilities possible consistent with the best and most equitable use of the radio frequency spectrum and of orbital space, Believing that satellite telecommunications should be organized in such a way as to permit all peoples to have access to the global satellite system and those States members of the International Telecommunication Union so wishing to invest in the system with consequent participation in the design, development, construction, including the provision of equipment, establishment, operation, maintenance and ownership of the system, Pursuant to the Agreement Establishing Interim Arrangements for a Global Commercial Communications Satellite System, Agree as follows: Article I. (DEFINITIONS) For the purposes of this Agreement: (a) "Agreement" means the present agreement, including its Annexes but excluding all titles of Articles, opened for signature by Governments at Washington on August 20, 1971, by which the international telecommunications satellite organization "INTELSAT" is established; (b) "Operating Agreement" means the agreement, including its Annex but excluding all titles of Articles, opened for signature at Washington on August 20, 1971,' by Governments or telecommunications entities designated by Governments in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement; (c) "Interim Agreement" means the Agreement Establishing Interim Arrangements for a Global Commercial Communications Satellite System signed by Governments at Washington on August 20, 1964; (d) "Special Agreement" means the agreement signed on August 20, 1964, by Governments or telecommunications entities designated by Governments, pursuant to the provisions of the Interim Agreement; (e) "Interim Communications Satellite Committee" means the Committee established by Article IV of the Interim Agreement; (f) "Party" means a State for which the Agreement has entered into force or been provisionally applied; (g) "Signatory" means a Party, or the telecommunications entity designated by a Party, which has signed the Operating Agreement and for which it has entered into force or been provisionally applied; (h) "Space segment" means the telecommunications satellites, and the tracking, telemetry, command, control, monitoring and related facilities and equipment required to support the operation of these satellites; (i) "INTELSAT space segment" means the space segment owned by INTELSAT; (j) "Telecommunications" means any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature, by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems; (k) "Public telecommunications services" means fixed or mobile telecommunications services which can be provided by satellite and which are available for use by the public, such as telephony, telegraphy, telex, facsimile, data transmission, transmission of radio and television programs between approved earth stations having access to the INTELSAT space segment for further transmission to the public, and leased circuits for any of these purposes; but excluding those mobile services of a type not provided under the Interim Agreement and the Special Agreement prior to the opening for signature of this Agreement, which are provided through mobile stations operating directly to a satellite which is designed, in whole or in part to provide services relating to the safety or flight control of aircraft or to aviation or maritime radio navigation; (l) "Specialized telecommunications services" means telecommunications services which can be provided by satellite, other than those defined in paragraph (k) of this Article, including, but not limited to, radio navigation services, broadcasting satellite services for reception by the general public, space research services, meteorological services, and earth resources services; (m) "Property" includes every subject of whatever nature to which a right of ownership can attach, as well as contractual rights; and (n) "Design" and "development" include research directly related to the purposes of INTELSAT. Article II. (ESTABLISHMENT OF INTELSAT) (a) With full regard for the principles set forth in the Preamble to this Agreement, the Parties hereby establish the international telecommunications satellite organization "INTELSAT", the main purpose of which is to continue and carry forward on a definitive basis the design, development, construction, establishment, operation and maintenance of the space segment of the global commercial telecommunications satellite system as established under the provisions of the Interim Agreement and the Special Agreement. (b) Each State Party shall sign, or shall designate a telecom- munications entity, public or private, to sign, the Operating Agreement which shall be concluded in conformity with the provisions of this Agreement and which shall be opened for signature at the same time as this Agreement. Relations between any telecommunications entity, acting as Signatory, and the Party which has designated it shall be governed by applicable domestic law. (c) Telecommunications administrations and entities may, subject to applicable domestic law, negotiate and enter directly into appropriate traffic agreements with respect to their use of channels of telecom- munications provided pursuant to this Agreement and the Operating Agreement, as well as services to be furnished to the public, facilities, divisions of revenue and related business arrangements. Article III (SCOPE OF INTELSAT ACTIVITIES) (a) In continuing and carrying forward on a definitive basis activities concerning the space segment of the global commercial telecommunications satellite system referred to in paragraph (a) of Article II of this Agreement, INTELSAT shall have as its prime objective the provision, on a commercial basis, of the space segment required for international public telecommunications services of high quality and reliability to be available on a non-discriminatory basis to all areas of the world. (b) The following shall be considered on the same basis as international public telecommunications services: (i)Domestic public telecommunications services between areas separated by areas not under the jurisdiction of the State concerned, or between areas separated by the high seas; and (ii)Domestic public telecommunications services between areas which are not linked by any terrestrial wideband facilities and which are separated by natural barriers of such an exceptional nature that they impede the viable establishment of terrestrial wideband facilities between such areas, provided that the Meeting of Signatories, having regard to advice tendered by the Board of Governors, has given the appropriate approval in advance. (c) The INTELSAT space segment established to meet the prime objective shall also be made available for other domestic public telecommunications services on a non-discriminatory basis to the extent that the ability of INTELSAT to achieve its prime objective is not impaired. (d) The INTELSAT space segment may also, on request and under appropriate terms and conditions, be utilized for the purpose of specialized telecommunications services, either international or domestic, other than for military purposes, provided that: (i)The provision of public telecommunications services is not unfavorably affected thereby; and (ii)The arrangements are otherwise acceptable from a technical and economic point of view. (e) INTELSAT may, on request and under appropriate terms and conditions, provide satellites or associated facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment for: (i)Domestic public telecommunications services in territories under the jurisdiction of one or more Parties; (ii)International public telecommunications services between or among territories under the jurisdiction of two or more Parties; (iii)Specialized telecommunications services, other than for military purposes; provided that the efficient and economic operation of the INTELSAT space segment is not unfavorably affected in any way. (f) The utilization of the INTELSAT space segment for specialized telecommunications services pursuant to paragraph (d) of this Article, and the provision of satellites or associated facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment pursuant to paragraph (e) of this Article, shall be covered by contracts entered into between INTELSAT and the applicants concerned. The utilization of INTELSAT space segment facilities for specialized telecommunications services pursuant to paragraph (d) of this Article, and the provision of satellites or associated facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment for specialized telecommunications services pursuant to subparagraph (e) (iii) of this Article, shall be in accordance with appropriate authorizations, at the planning stage, of the Assembly of Parties pursuant to subparagraph (c) (iv) of Article VII of this Agreement. Where the utilization of INTELSAT space segment facilities for specialized telecommunications services would involve additional costs which result from required modifications to existing or planned INTELSAT space segment facilities, or where the provision of satellites or associated facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment is sought for specialized telecommunications services as provided for in subparagraph (e) (iii) of this Article, authorization pursuant to subparagraph (c) (iv) of Article VII of this Agreement shall be sought from the Assembly of Parties as soon as the Board of Governors is in a position to advise the Assembly of Parties in detail regarding the estimated cost of the proposal, the benefits to be derived, the technical or other problems involved and the probable effects on present or foreseeable INTELSAT services. Such authorization shall be obtained before the procurement process for the facility or facilities involved is initiated. Before making such authorizations, the Assembly of Parties, in appropriate cases, shall consult or ensure that there has been consultation by INTELSAT with Specialized Agencies of the United Nations directly concerned with the provision of the specialized telecommunications services in question. Article IV. (JURIDICAL PERSONALITY) (a) INTELSAT shall possess juridical personality. It shall enjoy the full capacity necessary for the exercise of its functions and the achievement of its purposes, including the capacity to: (i)Conclude agreements with States or international organizations; (ii)Contract; (iii)Acquire and dispose of property; and (iv)Be a party to legal proceedings. (b) Each Party shall take such action as is necessary within its jurisdiction for the purpose of making effective in terms of its own law the provisions of this Article. Article V. (FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES) (a) INTELSAT shall be the owner of the INTELSAT space segment and of all other property acquired by INTELSAT. The financial interest in INTELSAT of each Signatory shall be equal to the amount arrived at by the application of its investment share to the valuation effected pursuant to Article 7 of the Operating Agreement. (b) Each Signatory shall have an investment share corresponding to its percentage of all utilization of the INTELSAT space segment by all Signatories as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Operating Agreement. However, no Signatory, even if its utilization of the INTELSAT space segment is nil, shall have an investment share less than the minimum established in the Operating Agreement. (c) Each Signatory shall contribute to the capital requirements of INTELSAT, and shall receive capital repayment and compensation for use of capital in accordance with the provisions of the Operating Agreement. (d) All users of the INTELSAT space segment shall pay utilization charges determined in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and the Operating Agreement. The rates of space segment utilization charge for each type of utilization shall be the same for all applicants for space segment capacity for that type of utilization. (e) The separate satellites and associated facilities referred to in paragraph (e) of Article III of this Agreement may be financed and owned by INTELSAT as part of the INTELSAT space segment upon the unanimous approval of all the Signatories. If such approval is withheld, they shall be separate from the INTELSAT space segment and shall be financed and owned by those requesting them. In this case the financial terms and conditions set by INTELSAT shall be such as to cover fully the costs directly resulting from the design, development, construction and provision of such separate satellites and associated facilities as well as an adequate part of the general and administrative costs of INTELSAT. Article VI. (STRUCTURE OF INTELSAT) (a) INTELSAT shall have the following organs: (i)The Assembly of Parties; (ii)The Meeting of Signatories; (iii)The Board of Governors; and (iv)An executive organ, responsible to the Board of Governors. (b) Except to the extent that this Agreement or the Operating Agreement specifically provides otherwise, no organ shall make determinations or otherwise act in such a way as to alter, nullify, delay or in any other manner interfere with the exercise of a power or the discharge of a responsibility or a function attributed to another organ by this Agreement or the Operating Agreement. (c) Subject to paragraph (b) of this Article, the Assembly of Parties, the Meeting of Signatories and the Board of Governors shall each take note of and give due and proper consideration to any resolution, recommendation or view made or expressed by another of these organs acting in the exercise of the responsibilities and functions attributed to it by this Agreement or the Operating Agreement. Article VII. (ASSEMBLY OF PARTIES) (a) The Assembly of Parties shall be composed of all the Parties and shall be the principal organ of INTELSAT. (b) The Assembly of Parties shall give consideration to those aspects of INTELSAT which are primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States. It shall have the power to give consideration to general policy and long-term objectives of INTELSAT consistent with the principles, purposes and scope of activities of INTELSAT, as provided for in this Agreement. In accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of Article VI of this Agreement, the Assembly of Parties shall give due and proper consideration to resolutions, recommendations and views addressed to it by the Meeting of Signatories or the Board of Governors. (c) The Assembly of Parties shall have the following functions and powers: (i)In the exercise of its power of considering general policy and long-term objectives of INTELSAT, to formulate its views or make recommendations, as it may deem appropriate, to the other organs of INTELSAT; (ii)To determine that measures should be taken to prevent the activities of INTELSAT from conflicting with any general multilateral convention which is consistent with this Agreement and which is adhered to by at least two-thirds of the Parties; (iii)To consider and take decisions on proposals for amending this Agreement in accordance with Article XVII of this Agreement and to propose, express its views and make recommendations on amendments to the Operating Agreement; (iv)To authorize, through general rules or by specific determinations, the utilization of the INTELSAT space segment and the provision of satellites and associated facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment for specialized telecommunications services within the scope of activities referred to in paragraph (d) and subparagraph (e) (iii) of Article III of this Agreement; (v)To review, in order to ensure the application of the principle of non-discrimination, the general rules established pursuant to subparagraph (b) (v) of Article VIII of this Agreement; (vi)To consider and express its views on the reports presented by the Meeting of Signatories and the Board of Governors concerning the implementation of general policies, the activities and the long-term program of INTELSAT; (vii)To express, pursuant to Article XIV of this Agreement, its findings in the form of recommendations, with respect to the intended establishment, acquisition or utilization of space segment facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment facilities; (viii)To take decisions, pursuant to subparagraph (b) (i) of Article XVI of this Agreement, in connection with the withdrawal of a Party from INTELSAT; (ix)To decide upon questions concerning formal relationships between INTELSAT and States, whether Parties or not, or international organizations; (x)To consider complaints submitted to it by Parties; (xi)To select the legal experts referred to in Article 3 of Annex C to this Agreement; (xii)To act upon the appointment of the Director General in accordance with Articles XI and XII of this Agreement; (xiii)Pursuant to Article XII of this Agreement, to adopt the organizational structure of the executive organ; and (xiv)To exercise any other powers coming within the purview of the Assembly of Parties according to the provisions of this Agreement. (d) The first ordinary meeting of the Assembly of Parties shall be convened by the Secretary General within one year following the date on which this Agreement enters into force. Ordinary meetings shall thereafter be scheduled to be held every two years. The Assembly of Parties, however, may decide otherwise from meeting to meeting. (e) (i) In addition to the ordinary meetings provided for in paragraph (d) of this Article, the Assembly of Parties may meet in extraordinary meetings, which may be convened either upon request of the Board of Governors acting pursuant to the provisions of Article XIV or XVI of this Agreement, or upon the request of one or more Parties which receives the support of at least one-third of the Parties including the requesting Party or Parties. (ii) Requests for extraordinary meetings shall state the purpose of the meeting and shall be addressed in writing to the Secretary General or the Director General, who shall arrange for the meeting to be held as soon as possible and in accordance with the rules of procedure of the Assembly of Parties for convening such meetings. (f) A quorum for any meeting of the Assembly of Parties shall consist of representatives of a majority of the Parties. Each Party shall have one vote. Decisions on matters of substance shall be taken by an affirmative vote cast by at least two-thirds of the Parties whose representatives are present and voting. Decisions on procedural matters shall be taken by an affirmative vote cast by a simple majority of the Parties whose representatives are present and voting. Disputes whether a specific matter is procedural or substantive shall be decided by a vote cast by a simple majority of the Parties whose representatives are present and voting. (g) The Assembly of Parties shall adopt its own rules of procedure, which shall include provision for the election of a Chairman and other officers. (h) Each Party shall meet its own costs of representation at a meeting of the Assembly of Parties. Expenses of meetings of the Assembly of Parties shall be regarded as an administrative cost of INTELSAT for the purpose of Article 8 of the Operating Agreement. Article VIII. (MEETING OF SIGNATORIES) (a) The Meeting of Signatories shall be composed of all the Signatories. In accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of Article VI of this Agreement, the Meeting of Signatories shall give due and proper consideration to resolutions, recommendations and views addressed to it by the Assembly of Parties or the Board of Governors. (b) The Meeting of Signatories shall have the following functions and powers: (i)To consider and express its views to the Board of Governors on the annual report and annual financial statements submitted to it by the Board of Governors; (ii)To express its views and make recommendations on proposed amendments to this Agreement pursuant to Article XVII of this Agreement and to consider and take decisions, in accordance with Article 22 of the Operating Agreement and taking into account any views and recommendations received from the Assembly of Parties or the Board of Governors, on proposed amendments to the Operating Agreement which are consistent with this Agreement; (iii)To consider and express its views regarding reports on future programs, including the estimated financial implications of such programs, submitted by the Board of Governors; (iv)To consider and decide on any recommendation made by the Board of Governors concerning an increase in the ceiling provided for in Article 5 of the Operating Agreement; (v)To establish general rules, upon the recommendation of and for the guidance of the Board of Governors, concerning: (A) The approval of earth stations for access to the INTELSAT space segment, (B) The allotment of INTELSAT space segment capacity, and (C) The establishment and adjustment of the rates of charge for utilization of the INTELSAT space segment on a non-discriminatory basis; (vi)To take decisions pursuant to Article XVI of this Agreement in connection with the withdrawal of a Signatory from INTELSAT; (vii)To consider and express its views on complaints submitted to it by Signatories directly or through the Board of Governors or submitted to it through the Board of Governors by users of the INTELSAT space segment who are not Signatories; (viii)To prepare and present to the Assembly of Parties, and to the Parties, reports concerning the implementation of general policies, the activities and the long-term program of INTELSAT; (ix)To take decisions concerning the approval referred to in subparagraph (b) (ii) of Article III of this Agreement; (x)To consider and express its views on the report on permanent management arrangements submitted by the Board of Governors to the Assembly of Parties pursuant to paragraph (g) of Article XII of this Agreement; (xi)To make annual determinations for the purpose of representation on the Board of Governors in accordance with Article IX of this Agreement; and (xii)To exercise any other powers coming within the purview of the Meeting of Signatories according to the provisions of this Agreement or the Operating Agreement. (c) The first ordinary meeting of the Meeting of Signatories shall be convened by the Secretary General at the request of the Board of Governors within nine months after the entry into force of this Agreement. Thereafter an ordinary meeting shall be held in every calendar year. (d) (i) In addition to the ordinary meetings provided for in paragraph (c) of this Article, the Meeting of Signatories may hold extraordinary meetings, which may be convened either upon the request of the Board of Governors or upon the request of one or more Signatories which receives the support of at least one-third of the Signatories including the requesting Signatory or Signatories. (ii) Requests for extraordinary meetings shall state the purpose for which the meeting is required and shall be addressed in writing to the Secretary General or the Director General, who shall arrange for the meeting to be held as soon as possible and in accordance with the rules of procedure of the Meeting of Signatories for convening such meetings. The agenda for an extraordinary meeting shall be restricted to the purpose or purposes for which the meeting was convened. (e) A quorum for any meeting of the Meeting of Signatories shall consist of representatives of a majority of the Signatories. Each Signatory shall have one vote. Decisions on matters of substance shall be taken by an affirmative vote cast by at least two-thirds of the Signatories whose representatives are present and voting. Decisions on procedural matters shall be taken by an affirmative vote cast by a simple majority of the Signatories whose representatives are present and voting. Disputes whether a specific matter is procedural or substantive shall be decided by a vote cast by a simple majority of the Signatories whose representatives are present and voting. (f) The Meeting of Signatories shall adopt its own rules of procedure, which shall include provision for the election of a Chairman and other officers. (g) Each Signatory shall meet its own costs of representation at meetings of the Meeting of Signatories. Expenses of meetings of the Meeting of Signatories shall be regarded as an administrative cost of INTELSAT for the purpose of Article 8 of the Operating Agreement. Article IX. (BOARD OF GOVERNORS: COMPOSITION AND VOTING) (a) The Board of Governors shall be composed of: (i)One Governor representing each Signatory whose investment share is not less than the minimum investment share as determined in accordance with paragraph (b) of this Article; (ii)One Governor representing each group of any two or more Signatories not represented pursuant to subparagraph (i) of this paragraph whose combined investment share is not less than the minimum investment share as determined in accordance with paragraph (b) of this Article and which have agreed to be so represented; (iii)One Governor representing any group of at least five Signatories not represented pursuant to subparagraph (i) or (ii) of this paragraph from any one of the regions defined by the Plenipotentiary Conference of the International Telecommunication Union, held at Montreux in 1965, regardless of the total investment shares held by the Signatories comprising the group. However, the number of Governors under this category shall not exceed two for any region defined by the Union or five for all such regions. (b) (i) During the period between the entry into force of this Agreement and the first meeting of the Meeting of Signatories, the minimum investment share that will entitle a Signatory or group of Signatories to be represented on the Board of Governors shall be equal to the investment share of the Signatory holding position thirteen in the list of the descending order of size of initial investment shares of all the Signatories. (ii) Subsequent to the period mentioned in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, the Meeting of Signatories shall determine annually the minimum investment share that will entitle a Signatory or group of Signatories to be represented on the Board of Governors. For this purpose, the Meeting of Signatories shall be guided by the desirability of the number of Governors being approximately twenty, excluding any selected pursuant to subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article. (iii) For the purpose of making the determinations referred to in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph, the Meeting of Signatories shall fix a minimum investment share according to the following provisions: (A)If the Board of Governors, at the time the determination is made, is composed of twenty, twenty-one or twenty-two Governors, the Meeting of Signatories shall fix a minimum investment share equal to the investment share of the Signatory which, in the list in effect at that time, holds the same position held in the list in effect when the previous determination was made, by the Signatory selected on that occasion, (B)If the Board of Governors, at the time the determination is made, is composed of more than twenty-two Governors, the Meeting of Signatories shall fix a minimum investment share equal to the investment share of a Signatory which, in the list in effect at that time, holds a position above the one held in the list in effect when the previous determination was made, by the Signatory selected on that occasion, (C)If the Board of Governors, at the time the determination is made, is composed of less than twenty Governors, the Meeting of Signatories shall fix a minimum investment share equal to the investment share of a Signatory which, in the list in effect at that time, holds a position below the one held in the list in effect when the previous determination was made, by the Signatory selected on that occasion. (iv) If, by applying the ranking method set forth in subparagraph (iii) (B) of this paragraph, the number of Governors would be less than twenty, or, by applying that set forth in subparagraph (iii) (C) of this paragraph, would be more than twenty-two, the Meeting of Signatories shall determine a minimum investment share that will better ensure that there will be twenty Governors. (v) For the purpose of the provisions of subparagraphs (iii) and (iv) of this paragraph, the Governors selected in accordance with subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article shall not be taken into consideration. (vi) For the purpose of the provisions of this paragraph, investment shares determined pursuant to subparagraph (c) (ii) of Article 6 of the Operating Agreement shall take effect from the first day of the ordinary meeting of the Meeting of Signatories following such determination. (c) Whenever a Signatory or group of Signatories fulfills the requirements for representation pursuant to subparagraph (a) (i), (ii) or (iii) of this Article, it shall be entitled to be represented on the Board of Governors. In the case of any group of Signatories referred to in subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article, such entitlement shall become effective upon receipt by the executive organ of a written request from such group, provided, however, that the number of such groups represented on the Board of Governors has not, at the time of receipt of any such written request, reached the applicable limitations prescribed in subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article. If at the time of receipt of any such written request representation on the Board of Governors pursuant to subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article has reached the applicable limitations prescribed therein, the group of Signatories may submit its request to the next ordinary meeting of the Meeting of Signatories for a determination pursuant to paragraph (d) of this Article. (d) Upon the request of any group or groups of Signatories referred to in subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article, the Meeting of Signatories shall annually determine which of these groups shall be or continue to be represented on the Board of Governors. For this purpose, if such groups exceed two for any one region defined by the International Telecommunication Union, or five for all such regions, the Meeting of Signatories shall first select the group which has the highest combined investment share from each such region from which there has been submitted a written request pursuant to paragraph (c) of this Article. If the number of groups so selected is less than five, the remaining groups which are to be represented shall be selected in decreasing order of the combined investment shares of each group, without exceeding the applicable limitations prescribed in subparagraph (a) (iii) of this Article. (e) In order to ensure continuity within the Board of Governors, every Signatory or group of Signatories represented pursuant to subparagraph (a) (i), (ii) or (iii) of this Article shall remain represented, either individually or as part of such group, until the next determination made in accordance with paragraph (b) or (d) of this Article, regardless of the changes that may occur in its or their investment shares as the result of any adjustment of investment shares. However, representation as part of a group constituted pursuant to subparagraph (a) (ii) or (iii) of this Article shall cease if the withdrawal from the group of one or more Signatories would make the group ineligible to be represented on the Board of Governors pursuant to this Article. (f) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) of this Article, each Governor shall have a voting participation equal to that part of the investment share of the Signatory, or group of Signatories, he represents, which is derived from the utilization of the INTELSAT space segment for services of the following types: (i)International public telecommunications services; (ii)Domestic public telecommunications services between areas separated by areas not under the jurisdiction of the State concerned, or between areas separated by the high seas; and (iii)Domestic public telecommunications services between areas which are not linked by any terrestrial wide-band facilities and which are separated by natural barriers of such an exceptional nature that they impede the viable establishment of terrestrial wide-band facilities between such areas, provided that the Meeting of Signatories has given in advance the appropriate approval required by subparagraph (b) (ii) of Article III of this Agreement. (g) For the purposes of paragraph (f) of this Article, the following arrangements shall apply: (i)In the case of a Signatory which is granted a lesser investment share in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of Article 6 of the Operating Agreement, the reduction shall apply proportionately to all types of its utilization; (ii)In the case of a Signatory which is granted a greater investment share in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of Article 6 of the Operating Agreement, the increase shall apply proportionately to all types of its utilization; (iii)In the case of a Signatory which has an investment share of 0.05 per cent in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (h) of Article 6 of the Operating Agreement and which forms part of a group for the purpose of representation in the Board of Governors pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (a) (ii) or (a) (iii) of this Article, its investment share shall be regarded as being derived from utilization of the INTELSAT space segment for services of the types listed in paragraph Ct~ of this Article; and (iv)No Governor may cast more than forty per cent of the total voting participation of all Signatories and groups of Signatories represented on the Board of Governors. To the extent that the voting participation of any Governor exceeds forty per cent of such total voting participation, the excess shall be distributed equally to the other Governors on the Board of Governors. (h) For the purposes of composition of the Board of Governors and calculation of the voting participation of Governors, the investment shares determined pursuant to subparagraph (c) (ii) of Article 6 of the Operating Agreement shall take effect from the first day of the ordinary meeting of the Meeting of Signatories following such determination. (i) A quorum for any meeting of the Board of Governors shall consist of either a majority of the Board of Governors, which majority shall have at least two-thirds of the total voting participation of all Signatories and groups of Signatories represented on the Board of Governors, or else the total number constituting the Board of Governors minus three, regardless of the amount of voting participation they represent. (j) The Board of Governors shall endeavor to take decisions unanimously. However, if it fails to reach unanimous agreement, it shall take decisions: (i)On all substantive questions, either by an affirmative vote cast by at least four Governors having at least two-thirds of the total voting participation of all Signatories and groups of Signatories represented on the Board of Governors taking into account the distribution of the excess referred to in subparagraph (g) (iv) of this Article, or else by an affirmative vote cast by at least the total number constituting the Board of Governors minus three, regardless of the amount of voting participation they represent; (ii)On all procedural questions, by an affirmative vote representing a simple majority of Governors present and voting, each having one vote. (k) Disputes whether a specific question is procedural or substantive shall be decided by the Chairman of the Board of Governors. The decision of the Chairman may be overruled by a two-thirds majority of the Governors present and voting, each having one vote. (l) The Board of Governors, if it deems appropriate, may create advisory committees to assist it in the performance of its responsibilities. (m) The Board of Governors shall adopt its own rules of procedure, which shall include the method of election of a Chairman and such other officers as may be required. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (j) of this Article, such rules may provide for any method of voting in the election of officers which the Board of Governors deems appropriate. (n) The first meeting of the Board of Governors shall be convened in accordance with paragraph 2 of the Annex to the Operating Agreement. The Board of Governors shall meet as often as is necessary but at least four times a year. Article X. (BOARD OF GOVERNORS: FUNCTIONS) (a) The Board of Governors shall have the responsibility for the design, development, construction, establishment, operation and maintenance of the INTELSAT space segment and, pursuant to this Agreement, the Operating Agreement and such determinations that in this respect may have been made by the Assembly of Parties pursuant to Article VII of this Agreement, for carrying out any other activities which are undertaken by INTELSAT. To discharge the foregoing responsibilities, the Board of Governors shall have the powers and shall exercise the functions coming within its purview according to the provisions of this Agreement and the Operating Agreement, including: (i)Adoption of policies, plans and programs in connection with the design, development, construction, establishment, operation and maintenance of the INTELSAT space segment and, as appropriate, in connection with any other activities which INTELSAT is authorized to undertake; (ii)Adoption of procurement procedures, regulations, terms and conditions, consistent with Article XIII of this Agreement, and approval of procurement contracts; (iii)Adoption of financial policies and annual financial statements, and approval of budgets; (iv)Adoption of policies and procedures for the acquisition, protection and distribution of rights in inventions and technical information, consistent with Article 17 of the Operating Agreement; (v)Formulation of recommendations to the Meeting of Signatories in relation to the establishment of the general rules referred to in subparagraph (b) (v) of Article VIII of this Agreement; (vi)Adoption of criteria and procedures, in accordance with such general rules as may have been established by the Meeting of Signatories, for approval of earth stations for access to the INTELSAT space segment, for verification and monitoring of performance characteristics of earth stations having access, and for coordination of earth station access to and utilization of the INTELSAT space segment; (vii)Adoption of terms and conditions governing the allotment of INTELSAT space segment capacity, in accordance with such general rules as may have been established by the Meeting of Signatories; (viii)Periodic establishment of the rates of charge for utilization of the INTELSAT space segment, in accordance with such general rules as may have been established by the Meeting of Signatories; (ix)Action as may be appropriate, in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of the Operating Agreement, with respect to an increase in the ceiling provided for in that Article; (x)Direction of the negotiation with the Party in whose territory the headquarters of INTELSAT is situated, and submission to the Assembly of Parties for decision thereon, of the Headquarters Agreement covering privileges, exemptions and immunities, referred to in paragraph (c) of Article XV of this Agreement; (xi)Approval of non-standard earth stations for access to the INTELSAT space segment in accordance with the general rules which may have been established by the Meeting of Signatories; (xii)Establishment of terms and conditions for access to the INTELSAT space segment by telecommunications entities which are not under the jurisdiction of a Party, in accordance with the general rules established by the Meeting of Signatories pursuant to subparagraph (b) (v) of Article VIII of this Agreement and consistent with the provisions of paragraph (d) of Article V of this Agreement; (xiii)Decisions on the making of arrangements for overdrafts and the raising of loans in accordance with Article 10 of the Operating Agreement; (xiv)Submission to the Meeting of Signatories of an annual report on the activities of INTELSAT and of annual financial statements; (xv)Submission to the Meeting of Signatories of reports on future programs including the estimated financial implications of such programs; (xvi)Submission to the Meeting of Signatories of reports and recommendations on any other matter which the Board of Governors deems appropriate for consideration by the Meeting of Signatories; (xvii)Provision of such information as may be required by any Party or Signatory to enable that Party or Signatory to discharge its obligations under this Agreement or the Operating Agreement; (xviii)Appointment and removal from office of the Secretary General pursuant to Article XII, and of the Director General pursuant to Articles VII, XI and XII, of this Agreement; (xix)Designation of a senior officer of the executive organ to serve as Acting Secretary General pursuant to subparagraph (d) (i) of Article XII and designation of a senior officer of the executive organ to serve as Acting Director General pursuant to subparagraph (d) (i) of Article XI of this Agreement; (xx)Determination of the number, status and terms and conditions of employment of all posts on the executive organ upon the recommendation of the Secretary General or the Director General; (xxi)Approval of the appointment by the Secretary General or the Director General of senior officers reporting directly to him; (xxii)Arrangement of contracts in accordance with subparagraph (c) (ii) of Article XI of this Agreement; (xxiii)Establishment of general internal rules, and adoption of decisions in each instance, concerning notification to the International Telecommunication Union in accordance with its rules of procedure of the frequencies to be used for the INTELSAT space segment; (xxiv)Tendering to the Meeting of Signatories the advice referred to in subparagraph (b) (ii) of Article III of this Agreement; (xxv)Expression, pursuant to paragraph (c) of Article XIV of this Agreement, of its findings in the form of recommendations, and the tendering of advice to the Assembly of Parties, pursuant to paragraph (d) or (e) of Article XIV of this Agreement, with respect to the intended establishment, acquisition or utilization of space segment facilities separate from the INTELSAT space segment facilities; (xxvi)Action in accordance with Article XVI of this Agreement and Article 21 of the Operating Agreement in connection with the withdrawal of a Signatory from INTELSAT; and (xxvii)Expression of its views and recommendations on proposed amendments to this Agreement pursuant to paragraph (b) of Article XVII of this Agreement, the proposal of amendments to the Operating Agreement pursuant to paragraph (a) of Article 22 of the Operating Agreement, and the expression of its views and recommendations on proposed amendments to the Operating Agreement pursuant to paragraph (b) of Article 22 of the Operating Agreement. (b) In accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of Article VI of this Agreement, the Board of Governors shall: (i)Give due and proper consideration to resolutions, recommendations and views addressed to it by the Assembly of Parties or the Meeting of Signatories; and (ii)Include in its reports to the Assembly of Parties and to the Meeting of Signatories information on actions or decisions taken with respect to such resolutions, recommendations and views, and its reasons for such actions or decisions. Article XI. (DIRECTOR GENERAL) (a) The executive organ shall be headed by the Director General and shall have its organizational structure implemented not later than six years after the entry into force of this Agreement. (b) (i) The Director General shall be the chief executive and the legal representative of INTELSAT and shall be directly responsible to the Board of Governors for the performance of all management functions. (ii) The Director General shall act in accordance with the policies and directives of the Board of Governors. (iii) The Director General shall be appointed by the Board of Governors, subject to confirmation by the Assembly of Parties. The Director General may be removed from office for cause by the Board of Governors on its own authority. (iv) The paramount consideration in the appointment of the Director General and in the selection of other personnel of the executive organ shall be the necessity of ensuring the highest standards of integrity, competency and efficiency. The Director General and the personnel of the executive organ shall refrain from any action incompatible with their responsibilities to INTELSAT. (c) (i) The permanent management arrangements shall be consistent with the basic aims and purposes of INTELSAT, its international character and its obligation to provide on a commercial basis telecommunications facilities of high quality and reliability. (ii) The Director General, on behalf of INTELSAT, shall contract out, to one or more competent entities, technical and operational functions to the maximum extent practicable with due regard to cost and consistent with competence, effectiveness and efficiency. Such entities may be of various nationalities or may be an international corporation owned and controlled by INTELSAT. Such contracts shall be negotiated, executed and administered by the Director General. (d) (i) The Board of Governors shall designate a senior officer of the executive organ to serve as the Acting Director General whenever the Director General is absent or is unable to discharge his duties, or if the office of Director General should become vacant. The Acting Director General shall have the capacity to exercise all the powers of the Director General pursuant to this Agreement and the Operating Agreement. In the event of a vacancy, the Acting Director General shall serve in that capacity until the assumption of office by a Director General appointed and confirmed, as expeditiously as possible, in accordance with subparagraph (b) (iii) of this Article. (ii) The Director General may delegate such of his powers to other officers in the executive organ as may be necessary to meet appropriate requirements. Article XII. (TRANSITIONAL MANAGEMENT AND SECRETARY GENERAL) (a) As a matter of priority after entry into force of this Agreement, the Board of Governors shall: (i)Appoint the Secretary General and authorize the necessary support staff; (ii)Arrange the management services contract in accordance with paragraph (e) of this Article; and (iii)Initiate the study concerning permanent management arrangements in accordance with paragraph (f) of this Article. (b) The Secretary General shall be the legal representative of INTELSAT until the first Director General shall have assumed office. In accordance with the policies and directives of the Board of Governors, the Secretary General shall be responsible for the performance of all management services other than those which are to be provided under the terms of the management services contract concluded pursuant to paragraph (e) of this Article including those specified in Annex A to this Agreement. The Secretary General shall keep the Board of Governors fully and currently informed on the performance of the management services contractor under its contract. To the extent practicable, the Secretary General shall be present at or represented at and observe, but not participate in, major contract negotiations conducted by the management services contractor on behalf of INTELSAT. For this purpose the Board of Governors may authorize the appointment to the executive organ of a small number of technically qualified personnel to assist the Secretary General. The Secretary General shall not be interposed between

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